The IPCC is an intergovernmental panel on climate change a group of scientists convened by the united nations to make recommendations to world leaders. Ninety-one leading scientists from 40 countries who together examined more than 6,000 scientific studies. Specialists such as Katharine Mach, who studies new approaches to climate assessment at stanford university; Tor Arve Benjaminsen, a human geographer at the Norwegian university of life sciences; and Raman Sukumar, an ecologist at the indian institute of science.

TITLE OF REPORT: “Global warming of 1.5 °c. An IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °c above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty”

Scientists who reviewed the 6,000 works referenced in the report, said the change caused by just half a degree came as a revelation. We can see there is a difference and it’s substantial.

At 1.5c the proportion of the global population exposed to water stress could be 50% lower than at 2c, it notes. Food scarcity would be less of a problem and hundreds of millions fewer people, particularly in poor countries, would be at risk of climate-related poverty.

At 2c extremely hot days, such as those experienced in the northern hemisphere this summer, would become more severe and common, increasing heat-related deaths and causing more forest fires.

But the greatest difference would be to nature. Insects, which are vital for pollination of crops, and plants are almost twice as likely to lose half their habitat at 2c compared with 1.5c. Corals would be 99% lost at the higher of the two temperatures, but more than 10% have a chance of surviving if the lower target is reached.

This quote summarizes:

“The IPCC maps out four pathways to achieve 1.5c, with different combinations of land use and technological change. Reforestation is essential to all of them as are shifts to electric transport systems and greater adoption of carbon capture technology.”

~ Jonathan Watts, global environment editor at “The Guardian”

#ipcc #climatechange #actnow #sciencegeek

Supernova 1604

Today in Astronomical History —> On this day in 1604 Supernova 1604 is sighted, the most recent supernova to be observed within the Milky Way.

Here’s the modern remnant of that supernova, which apparently was visible in 1604 for three weeks during the day, and was by far the brightest star in the sky back then:

Liaisons: The Binding Agents

A Gumbo Roux

Liaisons thicken a liquid in order to add body and thickness.

Basic Stock + Binding Agent = Basic Sauce

Roux: Made by cooking together flour and fat (typically butter) usually in equal portions.

  • Fat is melted
  • Flour is added and cooked
  • Roux Blanc —> 3-5 minutes, pale sauce
  • Roux Blond —> 6-7 minutes, golden sauce
  • Roux Brun —> 8-12 minutes, rich brown sauce

Beurre Manié: Softened Butter kneaded into flour

  • Pea size amounts whisked into sauce
  • Mixture is never brought to a boil
  • Only a small amount is used

Singer: Dry flour is sprinkled into a sauce

Slurry: Whisking Potato starch, cornstarch, arrowroot, or Rice flour into a cold liquid to be dissolved.

  • Poured into boiling liquid in a slow stream.
  • Whisk constantly until thickened.

Double Cream: 

  • Simmered and reduced by half
  • Do not reduce further or it will break.
  • Whish into a hot liquid.


  • French Dijon has a slight thickening effect.
  • Beaten into the sauce off heat.
  • Sauce must not be boiled again or it will break.

Egg Yolks:

  • Temper egg yolk —> whisk a small amount of hot liquid into yolks to prevent from scrambling when added to sauce.
  • Whisk vigorously as you add to hot sauce.


  • Pearl tapioca will add consistency to a sauce.
  • If left to sit the thickening will continue.


  • Used to finish a sauce and create a silky velvet like thickness.
  • Not a primary thickener.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020

The Nobel Prize—in Chemistry—went to Jennifer Doudna of UC Berekeley and Emmanuelle Charpentier at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin.

The prize went for the CRISPR/Cas9 system of gene editing and was a tremendous accomplishment in biology and chemistry. It promises a lot, including curing human genetic disease.

Remember, Nobel Prizes in science are designed to reward those who made discoveries potentially helping humanity, not those who just made general scientific advances.

In the 120 years of Nobel prizes in medicine, physics and chemistry, prizes were awarded 599 times to men and 23 times to women.

“For too long, many many discoveries made by women have been underplayed and they have simply not been recognized. The under representation of women in science has been too clear.”

~ American Chemistry Society President Luis Echegoyen, a chemistry professor at the University of Texas El Paso.

Btw this is the first time two women have shared a science Nobel Prize. Go women in STEM!

#NobelPrize #Chemistry #WomenInSTEM #JenniferDoudna #EmmanuelleCharpentier

Nobel Prize in Physics 2020: Black Holes

Three Laureates share this year’s Nobel Prize in Physics for their discoveries about one of the most exotic phenomena in the universe, the black hole. Roger Penrose showed that the general theory of relativity leads to the formation of black holes. Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez discovered that an invisible and extremely heavy object governs the orbits of stars at the centre of our galaxy. A supermassive black hole is the only currently known explanation.

Penrose got half the prize, with Genzel and Ghez sharing the other 50%.

#NobelPrize #BlackHoles #Physics

Skylab (1973-1979)

Skylab (1973-1979)

Skylab was the United States’ first space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979. The station was equipped with a solar observatory (Apollo Telescope Mount), workshop and scientific equipment for conducting experiments in space.

Launched on the retiring Saturn V rocket, the station saw three manned expeditions between 1973 and 1974. Thousands of photographs of Earth were taken, and the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) viewed Earth with sensors that recorded data in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectral regions.

Plans to reuse Skylab for further space missions were delayed and eventually scrapped due to the development of the Space Shuttle Program.

On July 11th 1979, Skylab was de-orbited and fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.

#WorldSpaceWeek #Skylab

Brown Stocks (Fonds Bruns)

Brown Stocks (Fonds Bruns)

  • Preheat oven.
  • Clean and, if necessary, break bones.
  • Brown bones in roasting pan in oven.
  • Add mirepoix.
  • Transfer bones and mirepoix to stockpot.
  • Remove fat from roasting pan.
  • Deglaze sucs.
  • Cover browned ingredients with cold water.
  • Simmer and skim.
  • Add bouquet garni and tomatoes.
  • Simmer, skim and defat frequently
    • Chicken stock: 4 hours
    • Veal & game Stock: 6-8 hours.
    • Beef Stock: 8-12 hours.
  • Drain through fine chinois.
  • Discard solids.

Brown Veal Stock (Fond de Veau Brun)

  • Roasted Veal bones.
  • Carrots.
  • Celery.
  • Onions.
  • Tomatoes.
  • Tomato paste.
  • Garlic
  • Bouquet garni.

Brown Beef and Veal Stock (Braisiere)

  • Roasted Beef and Veal bones.
  • Carrots.
  • Onions.
  • Celery.
  • Tomatoes.
  • Tomato paste.
  • Garlic.
  • Bouquet garni.

Brown Game Stock (Fond de Gibier)

  • Roasted game bones.
  • Carrots.
  • Celery.
  • Onions.
  • Tomatoes.
  • Tomato paste.
  • Garlic.
  • Bouquet garni.

White Stocks (Fonds Blances) & Fumets

White Stocks (Fonds Blancs)

  • Clean and degorge bones.
  • Blanch and drain bones.
  • Cover bones with cold water.
  • Bring to a simmer and skim.
  • Add mirepoix and bouquet garni.
  • Simmer and skim frequently.
    • Chicken Stock: 2 hours.
    • Veal Stock: 4-6 hours.
  • Drain through fine chinois.
  • Discard solids.


  • Cleand and degorge bones.
  • Sweat vegetables.
  • Add bones and continue to sweat.
  • Cover with cold water.
  • Add bouquet garni.
  • Simmer and skim frequently for 30 minutes.
  • Drain through fine chinois.
  • Discard solids.

White Veal Stock (Fond de Veau Blanc)

  • Blanched Veal bones.
  • Carrots.
  • Onions.
  • Leeks.
  • Celery.
  • Bouquet Garni.

White Chicken Stock (Fond de Volaille Blanc)

  • Blanched chicken bones.
  • Carrots.
  • Onions.
  • Leeks.
  • Celery.
  • Bouquet Garni.

Fish Stock (Fumet de Poisson)

  • Fish bones.
  • Onions.
  • Leeks.
  • Bouquet garni.

French Stocks (Fonds)

Fonds, or stocks, are the starting point for many sauces, it’s critical that stock quality be the absolute best possible (in flavor and color), especially when reduced.

Brown stock—made with browned beef or veal bones and classic vegetable aromatics (classically, onion, leek, carrots, and celery).

White veal stock—prepared with veal bones and classic vegetable aromatics, but the bones and vegetables are not browned.

Chicken stock—made with skin-on chicken meat, chicken bones, and classic vegetable aromatics.

Vegetable stock—typically made with classic vegetable aromatics and sometimes leftover bits of other mild vegetables, such as mushrooms.

Fumet—fish stock made with fish bones, heads, tails, and classic vegetable aromatics, except the carrots.

Court-bouillon—a quickly cooked broth prepared with classic vegetable aromatics that serves as a poaching liquid for meat or fish.

Demi-glace—any kind of stock—white or brown, typically using veal, chicken, pork, or beef—reduced down to a glaze (about 20 percent of its original volume) and later reconstituted in various sauces.

Glace de crustace—or crustacean stock, made with crustacean shells, such as shrimp, crab, lobster, or crayfish that is cooked with classic vegetable aromatics and cooked down to a glaze (about 20 percent of its original volume).